Frequently Asked Questions

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What is a NAPTR RR?

A NAPTR RR (Naming Authority Pointer Resource Record) is an entry in the Domain Name System (DNS) containing rules for transcribing inquires. The result is returned to the application making the inquiry. For resolving ENUM, this means that an inquiry about an ENUM domain is handled according to the appropriate rules and answered with a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). This URI provides the output address and the protocol to be used for further communication.

For example, an inquiry to the DNS about 0.5.3.2.7.2.9.6.9.4.e164.arpa results in the return of the following NAPTR RR.

IN NAPTR 10 10 "U" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:zentrale@denic.de!" .
IN NAPTR 20 10 "U" "E2U+voice:tel" "!^.*$!tel:+4969272350!" .

Each NAPTR RR has the following format:
Class Type Order Preference Flags Service Regexp Replacement

 

  The preference value 10 causes the selection of the NAPTR record:
 IN NAPTR 10 10 "U" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:zentrale@denic.de!" .
 The telephone number used for the inquiry is mapped to an SIP address. The result is thus a URI. This is arrived at by interpreting the regular expression "!^.*$!sip:zentrale@denic.de!", which means that the complete inquiry string 0.5.3.2.7.2.9.6.9.4.e164.arpa is to be replaced by the string sip:zentrale@denic.de.

Can all applications, such as browsers and e-mail programs, handle IDNs?

The A-label (i.e. the ASCII-character-encoded form of a domain) usually remains invisible to the user because it is needed only for technical operations. Whenever users enter domains in form of non-ASCII characters, the applications used, such as web browsers or e-mail programs, must "translate" the data.

Most applications support the characters which have been permitted since the Internet standard 2003 became effective. The situation is different for "ß", which can only be used since the IDN standard was revised in August 2010. Up to that date, "ß" was always converted into "ss" (normalized). Since there are many browsers and e-mail programs that will not support the "ß" during a transition period but will continue to convert it into "ss", users may receive unexpected results when querying an ß-domain. For instance, if you enter the domain "straße.de" in your browser, you will either be properly directed to the contents recorded under "straße.de" (if the browser already applies software in accordance with the new standard) or, wrongly, to the contents stored under "strasse.de" (if the browser still uses software in accordance with the old standard).

Even if you have an IDN-enabled browser and e-mail client, you have no guarantee that all other Internet users will be able to call your IDN-based website or to send you an e-mail to your IDN address. There is, however, an emergency solution for such situations: You may use the IDN's ACE string. In our example, this means replacing info@straße.de with the transcoded form of info@xn--zz-strae-oga.de in your entry.

We have set up a list of IDN-capable software for you.

What services are offered by DENICdirect and what precisely do these services contain?

If you wish to register your domain with our service DENICdirect, you can choose between two types of services: "NSEntry" and "Nameserver".

DENIC NSEntry

This service allows up to five mailexchange- or address-entries within a domain. It is preferred, if you don't want to run your own nameservers. DENICsmall covers www.domain.de, ftp.domain.de and e-mail forwarding. The technical entries for the domain have to be specified.

DENIC Nameserver

This means delegation of the responsibility for a domain to at least two nameservers, that the customer specifies. All nameserver queries for this domain will be redirected to these responsible nameservers. The technical entries for the domain have to be specified.

A domain holder can initiate changes at any time (DENIC usually calls this process an UPDATE). We enter such changes into our system immediately. An update job can be used to modify the type of entry (NSEntry or Nameserver) as well as its contents. All updates must be in writing and must be submitted to DENIC as <media 768>complete jobs</media>. This update service is part of the maintenance covered by the registration fee and is thus not invoiced separately.

Important notice:

Domain registration through DENICdirect does not include any Internet access or any web space. You can only obtain these services from an Internet Service Provider (ISP). There are numerous ISPs to choose from and they also include many of DENIC's members.

What happens to "nsentry" domains?

"nsentry" domains - their records being stored and being authoritative directly in the .de zone - will be recorded automatically by DNSSEC and provided with the corresponding signatures generated by DENIC.

What about DNSSEC and my domains administered by DENICdirect? Can they be signed with DNSSEC?

At present, our DENICdirect service does not provide for a possibility to store key material for domains with name server entries. Domains with "nsentry" records - their records being stored and being authoritative directly in the .de zone - will be recorded automatically by DNSSEC and provided with the corresponding signatures generated by DENIC.

Additional information can be found at https://www.denic.de/en/domains/de-domains/registration/nameserver-and-nsentry-data/.

What is a DISPUTE entry?

 Sometimes third parties come along and claim that they have a greater right to a domain than its current holder and submit considerable evidence in support of their claim. When that happens, DENIC can use an instrument known as a DISPUTE entry, which it places on the domain concerned. The two-fold effect of a DISPUTE entry is that the current holder is prevented from passing it on to anyone else and, if the domain is deleted, the holder of the DISPUTE becomes its new holder.

The DISPUTE entry has an initial validity of one year. If no agreement is reached within that year, it is possible for DENIC to extend the DISPUTE entry, if requested. Before it will do that, however, the holder of the DISPUTE must explain with supporting evidence why the argument with the domain holder has not been resolved and in what form they are still fighting out their difference.

What restrictions are involved when a domain has a DISPUTE entry placed on it? Is it still possible to change providers and holders?

The DISPUTE entry prevents the domain from being transferred to a new holder. All other forms of change remain possible (i.e. a Provider Change, an update of the name servers or a change in some or all of the administrative or technical contacts).

In order to reliably ensure that no transfer is made to a new holder, DENIC's system locks part of the holder's data of any domain subject to a DISPUTE entry, rendering a CHHOLDER impossible. Note carefully that that does not mean that changes in this data are impossible. On the contrary, if there are changes, they must be reported to DENIC. These might be a move to a new address or a change in name (such as when a natural person gets married or a legal entity changes its registered name). What you, as the responsible DENIC member, have to do in a case like this is to contact DENIC directly and send us documentary evidence to show that the desired data changes are not a concealed means of replacing the old holder with a new one. Adequate evidence might be documents from a residents' registration office, a marriage certificate or, for a legal entity, excerpts from commercial registers, possibly in combination with the corresponding decision by the proprietors of the business.

Please note: For Domains wirh a DISPUTE entry an automated CHPROV with a Holder-Handle for a domain with Description is not possible. Please contact Business Services.

Can you please explain the difference between NSentry- and Nameserver?

There are two ways of ensuring a domain's connectivity:

  • NSentry:
     Firstly, there is the alternative of linking up to five services on DENIC's own name servers that have something to do with your domain, such as www.de-example.de or mail.de-example.de, directly with the IP address of the host (IN A or IN AAAA) or a mail server (IN MX )through which this service is handled (such links are known as "NSentries"). In this second case, you do not need to have a name server of your own.
  • Nameserver:
     The second of these is for the domain to be delegated by DENIC name servers to other name servers. This means that DENIC enters the addresses of at least two name servers in its databases. Any inquiry DENIC receives about this domain is passed on to these name servers. In order to ensure that the name servers concerned are accessible and competent, we perform a check of functionality the first time entries are made for them.

What are NSentry domains and name servers?

There are two ways of ensuring a domain's connectivity:

The first of these is for the domain to be delegated by DENIC name servers to other name servers. This means that DENIC enters the addresses of at least two name servers in its databases. Any inquiry DENIC receives about this domain is passed on to these name servers. In order to ensure that the name servers concerned are accessible and competent, we perform a check of functionality the first time entries are made for them.

Secondly, there is the alternative of linking up to five services on DENIC's own name servers that have something to do with your domain, such as www.example.de or mail.example.de, directly with the IP address of the host or a mail server through which this service is handled (such links are known as “NSentries”). In this second case, you do not need to have a name server of your own.

How did my domain get into TRANSIT?

Because your provider stopped administering your domain. This happens if either you yourself or your provider terminates your mutual contractual relationship. Potential reasons are the termination of a website or an e-mail service. However, we do not know any details. If you have any questions on this matter, please contact your former provider.

Your domain will also be placed in TRANSIT if a DISPUTE entry was made on your behalf and you become the new domain holder after the deletion of the domain.

Do DISPUTE entries for IDN domains differ in any way from those for other domains?

 No. As with any other domain, it is the domain holder in person who is responsible for ensuring that their domain does not infringe the rights of anybody else. For that reason, anyone who feels that their rights have been infringed by a domain must take issue with the domain holder and not with DENIC.

DENIC can, however, assist claimants by placing a DISPUTE entry on the domain concerned, provided claimants are able to present plausible evidence of their rights. You'll find further information about DISPUTE entries on DENIC's public website.

For that purpose, the claimant must submit plausible evidence that they might have a right to the domain and show that they are in the process of enforcing their rights against the domain holder.

What is meant by a domain's connectivity? What types of connectivity are possible for a .de domain?

 When we speak about the connectivity of a domain we refer to the provision of services that make it possible to reach it in the Internet. Under the Top Level Domain .de there are two alternative ways of ensuring the accessibility of a domain:

The first of this is a direct NSentry in the .de zone. The domain concerned is connected up directly via an address record (IN A or IN AAAA) or a mail-exchanger (IN MX) entry to the corresponding services.

The second is to connect the domain up through its own name server. In this case, the .de zone contains only a link to the appropriate name server.

What is a CHHOLDER?

The request type CHHOLDER is used to change the holder of a domain. The UPDATE request cannot be used for that purpose. With a CHHOLDER request you can also change all other data of the domain. A CHHOLDER request can only be executed, if the domain concerned already exists and is administered by the provider that submits the request.

One or several Holder Handles are replaced by one or several other Holder Handles.

Please note the following restrictions for domains with active DISPUTE entry:
 It is only possible to change the existing DENIC handle if the new handle consists of exactly the same data as the old one. The Holder cannot be changed.

Please note the following regulations for domains with active CHPROV:
The holder(s) of a domain cannot be changed by a CHHOLDER request.

One or more Holder Contacts can be replaced by one or more other Holder Contacts provided that every component of the "Name" field of the Holder Contacts recorded for the domain is contained as a complete word in exactly the same "Name" field of the new Holder Contact and occurs precisely once. The "Name" field of the new Holder Contacts must not include any additional letters or characters not contained in the currently recorded Contacts. In short, the new Handle(s) must contain precisely the same name components as the current Contact(s).

Can I query via whois if a DISPUTE-entry exists for a domain?

If a domain is subject to a DIPUTE entry, the member which adminsters the domain will see an additional line when performing a domain query via whois. The keyword for the line is "Dispute", the only value, which is possible is "running". If there is no DISPUTE entry the whole line is omitted.

What do I have to bear in mind regarding a provider transfer if a DISPUTE entry exists for the domain?

If a domain bears a DISPUTE entry and a CHPROV via AuthInfo is submitted for the domain, DENIC checks if the mandatory data for the domain holder according to the Domain Guidelines has not been altered. Thus, a member who wants to administer the domain in future has to create a DENIC handle with holder name and address data that is identical with the currently recorded domain name data and the full address data. Optional data like telephone number may differ from the current data.

This rule applies for RRI and MRI.

How is it possible to get a DISPUTE entry for test domains?

If you need domains with a DISPUTE entry for your tests, please register the domains which were needed and indicate the domains in a PGP signed e-mail to DENICoperations. Business Services will inform you after having placed the DISPUTE(s).

The DISPUTE holder is set to Business Services which means that Business Services becomes the new holder of the domain if it is deleted.

Can I also use RRI to find out if a DISPUTE exists for a domain?

If a domain is subject to a DISPUTE entry, the member administering the domain will get an additional line "[dispute]" when performing an RRI-INFO query for the domain.

What can I do if I find that 'my' domain is not registered for me but for someone else?

If you have been assuming that a particular domain was registered for you and that someone else has been registered as the domain holder from the very beginning, the first thing you should do it to check if you have entered into some sort of agreement (possibly with your provider, your advertising agency or even someone else) whereby another person was to be named as domain holder and not you. If that is not the case, you'll have to resolve the matter directly with the other party registered as being the domain holder.

It might well be worthwhile applying to DENIC to have a DISPUTE entry placed on the domain, making it impossible for it to be transferred to anyone else. DENIC cannot do anything for you in this situation, since the person registered has become the domain holder in fact, even if something different was perhaps agreed with you or at least if that had never been your intention.

What can I do if I believe that I have a right to a registered domain?

If you can submit appropriate documentary evidence of your rights, you can use the form provided by us to request information about the domain holder.

If you come to the conclusion that you have a right to the domain and intent to carry out a dispute about it with the domain holder, DENIC makes available the so-called DISPUTE entry to you.

What happens if there is a DISPUTE entry in my name and the domain is deleted?

In such a case, you instantly become the new holder of the domain. DENIC will also communicate this fact immediately either to you in person or to your representative who originally set the DISPUTE entry for you. DENIC will also inform you as to what further steps you'll need to take.

How can I get a DISPUTE entry?

To get a DISPUTE entry made in your name you must apply to DENIC. It is mandatory to use the appropriate form in the paper or online version, to sign it and to send the original to DENIC. Please note that you must have submitted a request to DENIC to get information about the holder of the domain on the applicable form before you can apply for a DISPUTE entry to be set. This request must have been made by the applicant within the month preceding the application for a DISPUTE entry. Please attach a written copy of the information received in response to the request to the application for a DISPUTE entry. This is particularly important, since, in signing the application, you confirm that you have already started the process of resolving the dispute with the domain holder or that you intend to do so very soon.

When you send your form to DENIC you must also enclose documentary evidence to show that there are reasonable grounds for claiming that you might have a right to the domain. Suitable documents for showing the existence of a potential right might be: in a case based on a trademark, the certificate granting you that mark, in a case based on a company, an excerpt from the commercial register, in a case based on your name, a copy of your identity card or passport, and in a case based on the name of a commune (i.e. a German local-government body), the commune's official letterhead.

Once you have applied to DENIC for a DISPUTE entry and DENIC has accepted your application, DENIC will send you confirmation with further guidance and an indication as to the period of validity of the DISPUTE entry. DENIC will also inform you if it decides that it cannot grant you a DISPUTE entry, possibly because there is insufficient evidence to support the rights you claim or possibly because there is already a DISPUTE entry on the domain. If you receive no communication from DENIC, you cannot automatically assume that DENIC has set up the DISPUTE entry. After 2-4 weeks, you should contact DENIC again and ask about the status of your application.

What is the period of validity of a DISPUTE entry?

Given that the DISPUTE entry deprives the domain holder of the right to dispose of the domain, it would not be good and also most probably not even admissible to maintain it indefinitely. It is conceivable that the parties might simply give up fighting over the domain and forget about the DISPUTE entry altogether. For that reason, the DISPUTE entry is limited to one year, after which it expires without prior notice. If the DISPUTE entry has been made in your name, it is your duty to inform DENIC as soon as the dispute with the domain holder has been brought to a conclusion, so that DENIC can remove the DISPUTE entry. Once the DISPUTE entry has been removed, the domain holder becomes free to dispose of the domain again by transferring it to someone else and, if the domain is deleted, the claimant will no longer automatically become the new holder. That is why it is particularly important that if a DISPUTE entry has been made in your name, you carefully note the date on which it will lapse, so that you can apply in good time for an extension if appropriate (you should do that no later than about one month before the DISPUTE entry lapses). It is possible to grant such an extension, provided the dispute with the domain holder is still continuing and the holder of the DISPUTE entry can demonstrate this adequately in writing, submitting suitable documentary evidence. In order to grant an extension, DENIC also needs a new copy of the DISPUTE form. Once again, your must complete the form, sign it and send DENIC the original.

Can I maintain or extend a DISPUTE after I have agreed with the domain holder that the domain will be released or transferred to me at some later date?

 No. The DISPUTE entry is intended to be solely a parallel measure to resolving the dispute over a domain. It can thus not be used as a form of guarantee for claims resulting from an agreement between the holder of a DISPUTE entry and the domain holder.

A DISPUTE entry should never be necessary for this purpose anyway. If you fear that the domain holder is not going to respect an agreement entered into with you, you are at liberty not to accept such an agreement to begin with or to take out some other form of protection. One conceivable solution might be for the domain to be transferred to you immediately, but with the agreement that the (existing) holder would be permitted to continue to use it for a transitional period.

How can I arrange for a DISPUTE entry to be removed?

It goes without saying that if a DISPUTE entry has been set up for you, you have the right to ask for it to be removed at any time. You must, however, use the <media 748>special form</media> for this purpose, sign it and send it to DENIC.

Once the DISPUTE entry has been removed, the domain is free again for transfer to others. If the domain happens to be deleted, you will cease to be its holder.

How much does it cost to set up a DISPUTE entry?

 At present, DENIC does not charge for setting up DISPUTE entries or for removing them.

What can I do if I feel that my rights have been infringed by a domain that does not end in .de?

DENIC is the registry for the Top Level Domain .de and is thus responsible solely for domains ending in .de. DENIC is unable to give you any information about domains under other Top Level Domains. However, we can tell you that most other registries responsible for TLDs also provide more information on this matter.


If the domain that concerns you comes under one of the a so-called generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs), such as .com, .net, .org., .info. .biz or .name, you can call ICANN's websites, where you'll find a directory of responsible registries. If certain preconditions are met, you may be able to settle your problem through a so called UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Procedure).


If the domain that concerns you comes under a so-called country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) such as .at (for Austria) or .uk (for the United Kingdom), IANA's website is where you'll find a list of registries.

Why does DENIC carry out predelegation checks?

Upon every registration, updating and holder change of a domain DENIC checks the stated name servers on certain criteria. The criteria to be examined include verifying whether at least two of the name servers are located in different /24 networks. Since not all registries carry out such tests, we would like to explain why DENIC does.

One reason for implementing predelegation checks as a matter of principle is to protect uninvolved third parties. This is of particular importance because the operator of a name server, who is not necessarily identical with the registrar or the domain holder, is not actively involved in the registration procedure; a delegation, however, would burden their resources. If DENIC did not check the stated name servers, any name server could theoretically be entered in a domain and thus possibly cause considerable traffic on this server. We would like to illustrate the situation by means of an example: If the name server ns.example.denic.de was “accidentally” entered for the domain denic-exampledomain.de, this could trigger a considerable increase in traffic on ns.example.denic.de, so that the name server would no longer be able to duly fulfil its original tasks. This in turn might entail damage for the operator of the name server, and the question would arise, in how far the registry who made the entry shared responsibility for the situation. After all it should have been able to realize that the name server was not configured for the domain in question. The checks carried out by DENIC and the consistent authoritative responses of the name server to a request for the SOA record of the zone reassure us that the operator of the name server has approved the delegation of the domain.

Moreover, the checks of the name server entries serve for protecting DENIC’s infrastructure. If all name servers entered for a domain cannot be reached, quite a lot of resolvers trigger new requests to the name servers of the delegated zones – in this case the name servers for .de. For a detailed technical description of this behaviour see RFC4697 "Observed DNS Resolution Misbehavior". The purpose of the /24 check is to ensure a redundant name server connection for a domain. /24 is the most suited approximation to a prefix length that is generally accepted and tolerated in routing tables. In these tables, addresses are considered as “independently reachable” if they are located in different /24 networks. Besides, the /24 check can be carried out comparatively quickly, which is of importance to avoid unnecessary delays in the processing of the registration requests. So the test is a compromise between accuracy and the outlay required for the check.

With NAST, DENIC places at disposal a tool for checking zones and name server configurations. It can be verified if the name servers were configured appropriately for a specific domain and if the zone is in accordance with the Domain Guidelines of DENIC.

Is DENIC able to advise me if I have a legal problem?

Naturally, it is DENIC's policy to assist its customers in any way it can when they have problems. However, it cannot give legal advice on individual cases. DENIC is not able to help you if, for instance, you want to know how to react to a written warning or what sort of chances you have of defending your domain in a legal dispute or how you can manage to force a domain holder to delete his/her domain. In such cases, you will have to seek specialist advice elsewhere, such as from a lawyer or a patent lawyer if trademark rights are the subject-matter. In Germany, the local professional chamber of lawyers (Rechtsanwaltskammer) and in some localities the local professional associations of lawyers (Anwaltsvereine) will be able to help you find the correct lawyer to handle your particular problem. Some of the German federal states have set up public legal-advice centres (Rechtsauskunftsstellen) and in some cases there may be a scheme of legal-aid vouchers to help you if you are unable to afford lawyers' fees. If in doubt about this last point, you will be able to get more information from the ministry of justice of the federal state concerned (Landesjustizministerium), or the nearest local court (Amtsgericht) might be able to assist you. In many cases, the best first step is often to try and find out more yourself by using the Internet, where there are many websites that provide legal information. There are also various mailing lists for online law, where you may find others willing to discuss your problem with you.

Can I insist on DENIC taking action against a domain that is infringing my rights?

The short answer is no. DENIC is at no time in a position to check whether or not the registration or use of a domain violates the rights of others. Moreover, DENIC has no duty to perform routine verifications of this nature. The German Federal Supreme Court said so quite clearly in its judgement of May 2001 in the “ambiente.de” case. Such a verification would, however, be the precondition for DENIC to intervene, since it ought to be clear to everybody that it cannot be permissible to take a domain away from its holder simply because someone else wants it. You certainly wouldn't want that if it was your domain that was at stake!


In these circumstances, you must pursue any disputes you may have on account of possible violations of your rights directly with the domain holder. DENIC will only take action once the dispute has been brought to a clear-cut conclusion, typically through a final judgement handed down by a court of law (ruling on the substance of the case).

How can I change the e-mail address to which "acknowledgements of RegAcc changes" are sent?

Such a change can only be requested by means of a master-key signed e-mail to Business Services.
This is also the channel to be used to find out about the current entry.

What can I do if the domain I would like to have has already been registered for someone else?

DENIC always registers domains on a “first-come, first-served” basis. If someone else registered before you, the only thing you can do initially is to settle for a different name for your domain.

If you have a right to the domain, please also read our information about the DISPUTE procedure.

Why is it that I can't find a domain in the Internet when I know it has been registered?

There are several possible explanations for this phenomenon:

When a domain is registered with DENIC, it is immediately visible via our whois service, so it is then possible to access certain data about the domain, in particular, the name of its holder. At the same time, technical data is added to the DENIC database regarding the domain's connectivity. Providing connectivity data involves indicating between two and five name servers through which the domain information is available or arranging for at least one direct entry (NSentry) to be made on the DENIC name server.

Once a domain has been fully connected, it is possible to use it to process various services (www, e-mail, ftp, etc.), but it is not mandatory to do so. What this means is that although "de-beispieldomain.de" has been registered, there doesn't have to be a host called "www.de-beispieldomain.de". There are no rules that lay down which services must be provided through a domain, and certainly there is no obligation whatsoever to create a homepage. It is possible for domain holders to decide to use their domains solely for the functions of transmitting e-mail or for file transfers using ftp. The use a domain (in whatever way) at any given point in time cannot be verified either technically or administratively. There would thus be no point in making the effective use of a domain into a precondition for its registration.

Another possibility is that the elusive domain does have its associated homepage, but that its server istemporarily inaccessible.

There is also the possibility that you have made a mistake in entering the URL.

It might be that the technical data have changed since you last accessed it (which will already be documented in our whois database), but that DENIC has not yet generated a new .de zone with the latest information.

In no circumstances does the inaccessibility of a website bestow any sort of right on you to demand its deletion. You can't call for the deletion of any website producing a message such as "under construction" either.

How does a correct name-server entry have to look like?

All information is made availlable to you on our website in section Nameserver  NSentry Data.

How does a correct NSentry have to look like?

All information is made availlable to you on our website in section Nameserver  NSentry Data.

Why is there no Dispute Resolution Procedure (like ICANN's UDRP) at DENIC?

The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) run by ICANN is only one of the available channels for settling disputes about domains. It thus does not follow that all domain registries have to opt for it automatically. In point of fact, very few of the county code Top Level Domains (ccTLDs) actually use ICANN's UDRP.

The motivation for setting up the ICANN dispute resolution procedure was that disputes involving generic Top Level Domains, such as .com, .net or .org, may result in an extremely complex mesh of international relations amongst the parties concerned. It is possible for the domain holder, the complainant and the registrar to be domiciled in three different countries, and it is even possible that the registry may be in a fourth country. Then it may happen that the competent court is not in the same country as the complainant, so the latter is forced to find an additional lawyer in that country, it may prove complicated to have official and court documents served, and the court hearing might be in a foreign language… The list of imponderables is virtually endless. Even assuming that all these hurdles can be overcome and the victorious party wins a court judgement, there is still the potential problem of getting that judgement executed on the territory of another country. From this brief description, it is clear that what is needed for tackling disputes concerning generic Top Level Domains is completely different from what is required when country code Top Level Domains, such as .de, are at stake.

In litigation involving .de domains, all the parties are often based in Germany, the case can be heard by a German court and a judgement can be secured quickly and for a moderate outlay.

The UDRP has another disadvantage in that it only comes into play for trademark infringements and malicious intent on the part of the domain holder, and the losing party still has the possibility of going before the ordinary courts afterwards. Moreover, in the case of the UDRP, it is the complainant who has to bear the costs of the procedure, whereas the practice of the German courts is for the losing party to bear the costs of litigation.

From the above it is clear that anyone holding rights to a name or a trademark would have no reason at all to want to opt for the UDRP procedure or a similar one for .de domains, since a German court hearing – combined with a DISPUTE entry at DENIC – represents an evidently superior alternative, given that it is both faster and cheaper.

Quite apart from all these considerations, the parties at dispute over a domain are perfectly free to refer their case to a dispute resolution procedure or even to a court of arbitration, if that is their preference.

Why is an "ß"-domain (such as "straße.de") not always resolved properly?

If a domain with the letter "ß" in its name is resolved correctly, for instance by a web browser, depends on the fact if the web browser that is used supports the new IDN standard that has come into effect in August 2010.

As long as there are some vendors who have not yet updated their browsers and/or users who apply older browser versions which still automatically convert the "ß" into "ss", failures may occur. Such browsers will resolve the entry "straße.de" to the domain "strasse.de".

We have set up a list of IDN capable software for you.